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The Beast Tamed - Updated

My 1998 Sport Centauro was picked for the May 2003 Moto Guzzi of the month on the www.wildguzzi.com web site and I was asked to write something about it. This article consists of parts of that article and some later Dyno runs.

The mechanical & electrical problems these bikes had straight from the showroom floor turned many people off the Centauro. The idling and mid range fuel injection problems were simply a result of Moto Guzzi not doing enough testing on their own ECU mapping.

Adam at https://secure.gforcecycles.com got me a Techlusion unit which I’ve used to adjust the fuel injection air to fuel ratio at different RPMs. He also got me some Avon sport tires so I could corner with the best of them. He owns a Centauro and has given me many other good ideas.

I contacted Will Creedon and bought and fitted his C-5 chip (9000rpm limiter) and added further to my knowledge of the Centauro.

Agostini Team’s (www.agostiniduilio.com ) Luca Alis (the boss), Marco Lorenzo and the two mechanics Meme and Silvio showed me what Europeans have done to improve their Centauros regarding valve clearances etc.

I then had my mechanic Phil Cheney in Danbury CT machine an all brass housing for the temperature probe and use European settings for the valves etc. He changed the battery wiring from # 6 to # 4 wire and also put in heavier wiring to the spark plugs and did so many other things that I could be here all day talking about them - thanks Phil.

Gordon and Richie at www.mgcycle.com suggested I install Stucchi crossover pipes and Mistral carbon fibre oval mufflers. These are great for passengers too because they stay cool.

I contacted Corbin for a customised seat to put me 1" back and 1" lower. This way I can get into both a racing or touring position.

John at PCW RACING (www.pcwracing.net) Schenecady, NY. tuned the Techlusion unit to produce the graphs below.

The Dyno tests # 1, 2 & 3 were done after the original article was written. Dyno tests 4 & 5 were done after the airbox was removed and replaced with K&N RU-3120 air filters. The intake cones were cut back by only 1/2" to fit the filters (cone-type intake part # 01 11 44 50). People in the know say that enough cone must be left to let the air to build up and maintain velocity.

1 - With Airbox

2 - With Airbox

3 - With Airbox

The motor without all the improvements and the stock chip will cut off by itself at 8400 RPM. With Will Creedon’s chip fitted, it will fade at about 9400 RPM (the CREEDON 9000 chip fades out at 9200 to 9400 RPM).

4 - Without Airbox
No Sidecovers

5 - Without Airbox
No Sidecovers

The Dyno tests show how badly the air box restricts the airflow to the engine. If you look at the intakes on the air box they are so small that you don't have to be a rocket scientist to see the problem. The tests show a 5 HP increase at the rear wheel without it. With no air filter (graph 4 and 5) the lines on the graph are about the same so I stopped testing with these air filters. The Dyno test for MPH was done before the removal of the air box and gave a reading of 149mph (static). So we can assume that there will be an increase in MPH after the removal of the air box.

To increase HP and MPH much further you would have to change cams, valves, etc. You would then have a racing bike instead of a good road bike. Now the Dyno probably varies + or - 10% from one run to another depending on temperature, air pressure etc. But comparing the graphs will give us a good idea of what’s going on and increase our overall knowledge. I would appreciate any other graphs and welcome any ideas or criticisms. This project was intended to correct Moto Guzzis mistakes and to create a better bike to ride and have fun with.

The Beast after all the work

People that own a Centauro call them the Beast. With all this work my Centauro is now a very reliable Beast. It has power throughout the whole RPM range in all temperatures and conditions. Handling, Performance and Control in Corners is excellent and the quality and craftsmanship can't be beat. This V-10 Sport Centauro (The Beast) will bait you and take control of you. Ride the hell out of her and then she will (sometimes) calm down.

The V-10 Sport Centauro is the most innovative model in the latest generation of Moto Guzzi motorcycles. It is destined to become a milestone in the history of Moto Guzzi and the rightful heir to the legendary V-7, T-3 and Daytona. Centaur in Greek mythology is a half man or woman and half horse. The Centauro lives up to its name. It’s a real steel horse or man-woman-horse and has lots of power and torque.

Part 2

The Spark Plugs were replaced with IRIDIUM NGK DR9EIX and the wiring MAGNACORE-ING for a V-10. After the removal of the air box and the Evaporative Emissions System you are left with the two lines that originally went to the air box to vent.The first one to vent is the Oil Breather which now runs down and is capped with a oil K&N Breather Filter or straight down to the atmosphere.The second line is from the Barometric Sensor that hose is also is run down to the atmosphere.The line or hose running from the fuel tank to the Evaporation Emission System is vented to atmosphere. The spigot that was on each of the air intake manifold (that went to the Evaporative Emissions System) is removed and the hole is sealed with a 6x1mm Allen Screw or Capped.

The Centauro will run allot cleaner with the EESystem and the Air Box removed, particularly after careful adjustment of the Fuel Air Ratio by a good Dyno Technician.

After running the bike the Spark Plugs were removed and they are now a nice coffee and cream colour. All work was done by my favourite Technician Phil Cheney and the great people at http://www.cliffsbmw.com , Danbury, CT USA.

The bike was now ready for the Dyno, so I called John & Mike my two favourite Dyno Technicians. John Builds Racing and Drag Motorcycles and will Modify or Fix anything to a motorcycle at http://www.pcwracing.net. Mike is a Graduate Engineer from Union College in Schenectady, NY. They make a great team. The Dyno test was the same as before, no noticeable changes and the Techlusion setting were not touched. One must remember that Temperature, Air Pressure, Humidity and the Technician are all influencing factors on your Dyno Test. These tests can be fudged. But in reality this provides no advances to the BEAST.

6 - Without Airbox
No Sidecovers

7 - Without Airbox
No Sidecovers

7A - Without Airbox
No Sidecovers

8 - Without Airbox
With Sidecovers

The original Dyno Tests were all run with both the side panels off. We did the last Dyno Test with the panels on. We also put the air filters back as far as possible - just a band’s width to hold them to the far end of the air cones (air stacks). With the panels on and the extra cone length to help build up air speed we gained a few more HP.

In Graph # 7 you can see a dip between 4000 & 5000 RPM. Now look at graph #8, between 4000 & 5000 RPM there’s now no dip. Whilst speed shifting on a Dyno is closer to every day road riding than single runs. I think that the best way to check the beast is put it on a 1/4 mile track as well. This is because even though the Dyno runs may be great, the on road ridability may not be so good.

John Ganey at www.pcwracing.net has a theory that the Centauro has too large an intake track causing slower air speeds. So here is what he did. The Inlet duct (part # 30115045) is between the throttle assembly (part #30112501) and the cylinder Head. The duct is 1.9 in. and starts as a Round 2.54 sq in. then makes a turn and goes into an Oval 2.02 sq in. He reformed the short side using Aluminum Epoxy where the Round and the Oval meet at the bend. This made the transition from round to oval a smoother surface for air to pass through. With the use of a Super Flow 110 Flow Bench after moulding there was a 13.5% decrease in volume area inside the Inlet Duct and only a 3.1% loss of airflow. This also speeded up the airflow. After a run on the Dyno you can see we eliminated the 10.4 HP loss between 4000 & 5000 RPM and the dip is taken out of the Graph 7, the Red being the Graph 7, the Blue being Graph 7A

Graph #6 and #7 have the Emissions Test for Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbons. You can see the red line and how restrictive the airbox is compared to the blue and purple lines .But if you take all the little things like Spark Plugs and Ignition Wiring, Wiring to battery #6 to #4 ,Temp Probe Brass Housing and so on it will all add up to a big increase in HP and Performance. If for some reason in your area the Environmental Requirements are more Stringent, you have plenty of room to lean with the Techlusion.

Nickos Coctpoulos has a great web site with loads of interesting things http://flyingbrick.freeyellow.com there is a picture of Nickos Sport Centauro with a Screen made by Secdem in France. It is turned up to deflect the air and makes cold weather riding easier to deal with and hopefully BUGS in the summer. Nickos got me to Jacques Dusserre & helped me with the French order form thanks Jacques. I put mine on and I like It better than the stock screen. Nickos has a picture in the Gallery with the screen on his Centauro.

Secdem Screen

Lots of people are having trouble with the stock RELAYS Siemens V23073 go to http://www.dpguzzi.com and you can get the Bosch 0 332 207 307 Relays which are far superior. In the USA it's $3.25 for 4 shipping included outside USA check with them and I am sure they will be fair. I have done business with these people found them very Honorable. The Centauro should have a Diode installed. If your battery dies while you are riding it will fry the ECU which can run into money to replaced. The diode costs under $10.00 US. It's easy to install, go to http://paaat.guzz.free.fr/diode_transil/english.html for instructions. These diodes can be purchased at an Electrical Outlet Store, Radio Shack doesn't carry them. And last but not least Dave at http://www.sportcyclepacific.com has some interesting things. I got a great looking Fuel Pump Mounting Clamp. It is sharp aluminum it's Clear Anodized. I never liked the stock one.

Fuel Pump Mounting Clamp

If you take out the Air Box ( which I recommend ) you can use K&N Pods SN-2620 Air Filter 6" long (20% angle from the Air Intake Stacks) gets 396 cu ft air a minute or 396 cfm, the RU-3120 6" long 10% angle gets 339 cfm (most people with Centauro and Daytona RS use the RU-3120) these will fit the Centauro & the RU-3590 7" long 10% angle long 396 cfm this one fits the Daytona RS but is to long for a Centauro. The SN-2620 6” long 396 and the RS-3120 6" long 339 cfm and will fit on a Centauro. 

I will be testing on the DynoJet this spring the SN-2620 and will add to this report if the 57 cfm or a 14% increase will picks up any HP from the RS-3120 6” 339 cfm which was tested in the Graph in part 3 of THE BEAST TAMED. The Techs at K&N they gave me the size and cfm for each of the Air Filters. Information from K&N Engineer at

The Dyno test with the K&N SN-2620 Air Filters ( Roberto USA he has been using them and told me about them ) gets 396 cu ft of air a minute or 396 cfm  was run 2 June 05 first got my Sport Centauro to http://www.cliffsbmw.com, Danbury, CT USA. Vinny Giaquinto Service Manager and Steve Saucier one of my favored top Techs ( Great with Moto Guzzi, Ducati, Aprilia & BMW ) there to check out the Centauro to see all was right. Then next door to  www.dyno-solutions.com for owner John Tavolacci and Certified Dynojet Tech, the cost was less than $50.00 US (  after the first run Air/ Fuel Mapping )  any additional runs as you may add on your bike check with John for cost he is a Great Guy to Deal with and very fair. DynoJet run Graphs 7B, 10A & 11 between the K&N RS-3120 cu ft of air a minute  339 cfm vs. K&N SN-2620 cu ft of air a minute or 396 cfm.



11 - midrange

Graph 7B you can see the dip line straightening out even more 7A or 7 which all the Moto Guzzi have a problem 2v & 4v with the Centauro at the for front.

Graph 11 is the mid-range showing more than 2 HP increase and more than a 3 ft-lbs increase in  Torque (ft-lbs)

Graph 10a is showing an increase through out the HP and Torque range

So the 14% increase in Air Volume will have an effect on performance not large increase but like I say a little here and there it all adds up to be Big Increase in performance.

No adjustments had to be made by the Dyno link Center from the original Air/Fuel Map there was such a disparity in the Humidity that the test was run Uncorrected but by using the same 250i DynoJet and Tech it is close as you can get it

Please read the bottom of the each graph for a lot more information.

On the way home Albany, NY from Danbury, CT 126 mile used 2.9 gals giving me about 43.4  miles per gal not bad for a big Moto Guzzi 4v Engines speeds of 75 mph to 90 mph all the way. Every little Carbon forming in my Exhaust System meaning a near perfect fuel burn.

If you have any questions please feel free to email me.

I was talking to the Engineer about the UNI-Filter part number UP6300AFT that came with Daytona/Centauro Velocity Stacks from (http://www.sportcyclepacific.com ) will do better than 400 cfm plus and should be oiled with UNI-Filter oil go to there site or Sport Cycle Pacific and you can get there oil he said with out it you will have problems http://www.unifilter.com/index.htm .

Joe Kenny at http://www.swva.net/jkenny has been riding for many years going to the different meets all over the USA including MGNOC meets, he worked as a Machinist for Texas Instrument and then went on his own, making some interesting things on the side for bikers and his fellow Moto Guzzi people. Some of the things are Heavy duty 4 bolts Head Guard (2v &4v) for the people that want the maximum protection. They come with 8 SST 6mm Allen bolts, four stainless steel to hold the end pieces on and four to hold the guards on. You can use the stock bolts for the top holes top and longer bolts are supplied with the head guards for the front. They will sell for $75.00 a set. 

The Shift Pedal and the Brake Pedal I asked him to make mine with grease fittings, can be made with the Toe Peg (Joe supplies a small Allan wrench and nut to lock down the peg to the Pedal) with different sizes (These Screw on, no problem to change before or after) longer for you guys with large size shoes or like me who rides in the winter months and use snow boots ( in the picture the Toe Pegs Normal and the 5/8” longer for the Larger one are next to a INCH RULER for comparison ) and they look so much better then the stock ones and are stronger. Moto Guzzi International is getting over (as of this writing) $160.00 US for the Shift Pedal and (as of this writing) over $170.00 US for the Brake Pedal when they are available and the price is based on the Euro Dollar which has been going up against the US Dollar making these parts costly and they are poorly made cheap alloy which people have reported to me have broken during normal use. Joe gets $150 + S&H for each. This item ( Head Guards, Shift & Brake Pedal) can be seen on my Sport Centauro in the pictures. Joe is a great guy and person to do business with, a real Gentleman.

I am not a die hard Techlusion person (but I must say it works for me), most of the people on C.O.G. use the Power Commander. So if some one would send me some Graphs and they look good I will gladly get one and try it out and maybe write another article about it. I hope this update and the first article has helped someone and if you Centauristi have any Graphs, Data or Info ( I am learning ever day) please forward them to me so I can keep the research up to date on the greatest bike in the history of Motorcycling.

Part 3

It all started with a phone call to my friend Phil Cheney Master Tech at Cliff’s Danbury BMW Dealership at Danbury, CT. He said that Dyno Solutions www.dyno-solutions.com  moved in next door and was on the Danbury BMW web site also. I call John Tavolacci the owner of the Dyno Solutions LLC he has the new 250i DYNO the latest  version of the 250 series is the ( i ) and he said that Todd Eagan of  http://www.guzzitech.com/  fame was in town for a few days to help John (John also has a great deal of knowledge of MOTO GUZZI BIKES) getting started with his new venture a NEW 250i DYNOJET (and he had with him a Power Commander 111 for a Centauro (Todd has been at the forefront and has done outstanding work on the PC111 for Motorcycles in General and for Moto Guzzi models as one being the Centauro, he has a few made special form time to time for rare motorcycles. I have been in contact with him to buy one for testing for almost 6 months at www.centauro-owners.com  forum; he was free with his vast knowledge about the PC111 and Motorcycles in General). The next day I had a friend follow me down to Danbury, CT a 2 hour ride from Albany, NY. I meet John a Great Guy (He is a Certified Technician on the DYNOJET and has the latest "Tuning Link" software for the 250i DYNOJET. This allows for very Precise Fuel Mapping that can not be Achieved by Manually Mapping a Motorcycle) and he introduces me to Todd Eagan a Real Gentleman and also a Certified Technician on the DYNOJET.

Now this is a Great time to see the differences between the PC 111 which enriches and Leans vs. the Techlusion which just Enriches. Wanted to see what a 250i DYNOJET can do and the differences between the two since I was limited to 150 DYNOJET the year before, the Europeans seem to use the 150 DYNOJET all the Dyno Graph I received from people all over Europe are done on a 150 DYNOJET, so I left the Centauro so they could put on a New Rear Tire Avon Sport from my dear friend ADAM at http://www.gforcecycles.com/ . Have to thank the great people from Cliff’s Danbury BMW Cliff, Phil, Francis, Evan, Mike and Vinny, so the Techs put the rear tire on and balanced it (Rear last me 1,500 to 2,000 miles the Front 3,000 to 4,000 miles) and an Oil change have been using Agip Racing 20w-50 4T Full Synthetic and a Oil Filter change, then next door to Dyno Solutions www.dyno-solutions.com  John and Todd adjusted TPS, Throttle Bodies and etc. With this done the bike was Tweak up and ready for the 250i DYNOJET Performance Evaluation Program:

9 - The 250i DYNOJET run with C-5 Chip and POWER COMMANDER111 20% STEADY THROTTLE PULL 10 - The 250i DYNOJET last run with C-5 Chip and the POWER COMMANDER111

You can see that on GRAPH # 9 the Throttle is held at 20% checking for RICH/LEAN without the PC111 just the Creedom C-5 Chip on the 250i DYNOJET this IS JUST A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL (one of many used) checking to see if the BASIC bike runs Rich and/or Lean or BOTH. The ECU and resident EPROM (C-5 Chip) in the BIKE getting to know the 250i DYNOJET Computer and its State Of The Art software just two BRAINS getting to know each other.

Graph # 10 is the Final run with PC111 and the Creedon C-5 Chip on the 250i DYNOJET you can see the DIP showing up on GRAPH 7 & 7A is further straighten out (HP LINES) even more than before at 4,500 RPM. Do to the fine Work and Patience of JOHN GANEY www.pcwracing.net put into the following: He had a theory that the Centauro has too large an intake track causing slower air speeds. So here is what he did. The Inlet duct (part # 30115045) is between the throttle assembly (part #30112501) and the cylinder Head. The duct is 1.9 in. and starts as a Round 2.54 sq in. then makes a turn and goes into an Oval 2.02 sq in. He reformed the short side using Aluminum Epoxy where the Round and the Oval meet at the bend. This made the transition from round to oval a smoother surface for air to pass through. With the use of a Super Flow 110 Flow Bench after molding there was a 13.5% decrease in volume area inside the Inlet Duct and only a 3.1% loss of airflow. This also speeded up the airflow. After a run on the Dyno you can see we eliminated the 10.4 HP loss between 4000 & 5000 RPM and the dip is taken out of the Graph # 7, the Red being the Graph 7, Blue being Graph # 7A. With the 250i DYNOJET there is more HP gain but I did not show this in Graph comparison since the disparity between the 150 DYNOJET and the 250i DYNOJET. But by comparing GRAPHS # 7, # 7A and # 10 you can see the results.

We ran Separate test on the Will Creedon Chip C-5 by itself and the Techlusion by itself and two combined but we did not have the setting instruction for the Techlusion. At this point the C-5 Chip was out doing the Techlusion but in all fairness I can not report this to be true since without the instruction sheet to setup the Techlusion  there is no way for me to know this at this time. But this has been reported. If some one out there has a chance to check out the Techlusion with the C-5 and separately please do so on a 250i DYNOJET please send me the Graphs, will have you and your research with the Graphs add to this report.

Dynojet’s newest release for your Moto Guzzi is the Power Commander 111-usb (PC111usb which John got me from Todd) version, which steps up the features. Faster processor, more programming points (every 250 vs. 500 rpm), a “cylinder trim” function which allows your Tuning Center to “Tuning Link” (correct) each cylinder separately, and an expansion port that may allow a future timing module. They’ve also made it easier for you to make subtle adjustments yourself.

There is a Big Difference between the 150 DYNOJET and the 250i DYNOJET The 250i DYNO has access to the AIR/FUEL Flow Sensors (which you can see at the bottom of the 250i DYNO Graphs) making it capable of making Maps for the PC111. The Graphs in this article the 150 Dyno Graphs doesn’t show the Air/Fuel Flow at the bottom of the Graph as the 250i DYNO. The 150 DYNO Graphs are smooth lines out to 3 thus showing as (S-3) on the Graphs are not as smooth as the 250i DYNO set for (S-5) smoothing out the lines, both DYNO can adjust the smooth rates of the lines on the Graphs. But it’s hard to compare in this report and/or any two Graphs because of the time of year, the Differences between DYNO and the difference between Graphs from the same DYNO, same or a different Technician and because of the following variables:

  • The Humidity
  • The Altitude
  • The Barometric Pressure
  • The Specific Temperature
  • The Experience of Technician
  • The Condition of Bike

The PC111will not compensate for multiple temperature and altitude variables, it is not a part of its capabilities. What the PC111 does is to act on the fuel delivery as provided by the ECU (Electronic Control Unit, the Bikes Brain). It can make the fuel Richer or Leaner as required for a near ’perfect burn' as measured by the DynoJet 250i Sensors, when running at different RPMs under load on the 250i Dynojet. So the operating parameters the map is built to are for:

  • That Specific Humidity
  • That Specific Altitude
  • That Specific Barometric Pressure
  • That Specific Temperature
  • That Specific Condition of Bike
  • That Experience of Technician

It is specific to the setup of that motorcycle in particular (TPS setting, Air Filtration System, Euro-Valve clearances (for USA imports), Exhaust, etc.).

Therefore when making the decision to add a PC111 and get a Custom Map you should do the following to Max Out your Bike if you can’t afford to do this add what you can but remember that as you add things in the future you will have to repeat the Dyno Run to remap the add on for the PC111 Map:

  1. Make sure your bike is in specification ( tuned as best as possible )
  2. That all anticipated changes (after market EPROM C-5, Air Filtration, Exhaust, Euro Specification Valve (for USA imports) settings, Brass instead of Plastic use on the USA Imports Temperature Sensor Housing, IRIDIUM NGK DR9EIX and the Plug wiring MAGNACORE-ING for a V-10, Battery Wiring from # 6 to # 4 Wire, etc.) have been incorporated when the bike was tuned
    Make sure that the bike is past it's break-in point so that it can be rev'd to it's limits
  3. Make sure you are running the same Octane Gas you intend to use during the tune-up and the mapping session as you always use
  4. Make sure you have it all done in your predominant riding season (same theory as having your snow blower tuned in winter as you never use it in summer)

Having this specific map made, you are still relying on the ECU and resident EPROM to make corrections in accordance with altitude, barometric reading and temperature. The PC111 will continue to subtract or add a given percentage of fuel in accordance with the map that was created.

This is where an after market EPROM like the C-5 comes into the picture for a Centauro. The original map was a combination of many miscalculations (some have hinted that Moto Guzzi actually had better maps in hand, but accidentally selected the less than optimum map that they then provided with the Centauro). The C-5 labored over by Will Creedon, made an out standing effort to correct errors in the map as well as other compensation algorithms.

Because the PC111 is so easily reprogrammed, it is possible to have individual maps made for each potential condition, and reload the map you need on a given change in the environmental variables. However, it makes more sense to have a good core EPROM, like a C-5, and have a custom map made on the PC111. With the good compensation algorithm the ECU will meter out the fuel in accordance with environmental changes and the PC111 will add or subtract the appropriate amount of fuel for the dynamics of your motorcycle (it's breathing and burning particulars).

Using other people’s maps is as productive and predictable as using another EPROM. It is an approximation of what might work on your bike. It could be a good approximation, or a bad approximation. It was a perfect match for one bike, with one EPROM, with one setup at given point in time.

I believe that a DYNOJET is a Must, the adjustments with a Laptop for a PC111 you don’t get all the sensing that is done by the 150 DYNOJET or a 250i DYNOJET set up.

The RIDE back to Albany, NY from Danbury, CT (126 miles) via rt84 HEADING WEST and the NEW YORK STATE THRUWAY heading NORTH the BEAST was so much more Responsive and Smooth. The Acceleration was so much more improved over the other set up I had, right on the MONEY (and I thought it could never get any better then). My GAS light would come on at 100 miles, now it comes on at 126 miles and GAS BURNED was 2.9 Gals. I was going 74 MPH 50% of the time speed limit for No Traffic Ticket and other 50% 80 to 115 MPH hit 120 MPH Traffic Ticket time, once saying to myself good thing I had a New Rear tire and the NEW YORK TROOPERS were Sleeping. The 250i DYNOJET was something to behold, I was VERY IMPRESSED.  My NEW PC111usb has a higher level of Technology than the Techlusion. Every time I UPGRADE my CENTAURO it gets better and better but the PC111 put it out of this WORLD. I believe that Dyno is an ABSOLUTLE MUST for any Motorcycle Tune up for not only FI but for CARB Bikes too. I think the DYNO is the UNSUNG HERO of this WHOLE ADVENTURE.

I HAVE to GIVE Special THANKS to KEN APPLEGATE aka MOTTS, TODD EAGAN, JOHN TAVOLACCI, JOHN GANEY www.pcwracing.net , CURTIS HARPER  http://www.harpermotoguzzi.com , Will CREEDON,  and ADAM at http://www.gforcecycles.com  that started me down this road of Research on the GREATEST BIKE IN THE WORLD the BEAST the CENTAURO . I hope this series 1, 2 & 3 part Article helps some one out there if you have any questions please Email. maxok@nycap.rr.com . Or email me about your Experiences.


James R Palma
MGNOC # L-663, AMA # 538847,  AOPA # 0153047 & TCA 75-8077

Editor's Note
On Sunday the 5th of February 2006 James Palmer passed away from a long illness. Jim was an enthusiastic Centauro owner and his articles and forum posts were of help to many owners new and old.
I'm sure that I speak for everybody in saying that we will all miss his colorful presence.

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